Skip to main content


American Economic Association, A. (2013, April 5). English Poor Law. Retrieved from:, November 10, 2015.

Branscombe, Martha. (1943).  The Courts and the Poor Laws in New York State, 1784-1929. Chicago, IL: U of Chicago,  Print.

Cummings, John. (1895).  "[Poor-Laws of Massachusetts and New York: With Appendices Containing the United States Immigration and Contract-Labor Laws]: Preface."  Publications of the American Economic Association  10.4 : 15-135.  JSTOR.

Feagin, Joe R.  (1895).  Subordinating the Poor: Welfare and American Beliefs. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Print.

Katz, M. (1996). Origins and Failure of the Poorhouse. In In the shadow of the poorhouse a social history of welfare in America (10th anniversary ed.). New York, New York: BasicBooks.

Katz, M. (1983). Poverty and Policy in American History. New York, New York: Academic Press.

Primary Research. (2008, June 3). Binding Out. Retrieved from: , accessed November 10, 2015.

Quigley, William P. "Rumblings of Reform: : Northern Poor Relief Legislation in Antebellum America, 1820-1860." Retrieved from: Https:// 2013. Accessed November 9, 2015.

Stuhler, L. (2013, November 18). A Brief History of Government Charity in New York (1603 - 1900) - Social Welfare History Project. Retrieved from: . Accessed, November 10, 2015

Trattner, W. (1994). From Poor Law to Welfare State, 6th Edition: A History of Social Welfare in America. New York, New York: The Free Press.